The International Phonetic Alphabet Updated 1996

THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 1993, updated 1996)
CONSONANTS (PULMONIC)
© 1996 IPA
Bilabial Labiodental Dental
Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex
p b
m
õ
Plosive
Nasal
Trill
Tap or Flap
Fricative
Lateral
fricative
Approximant
Lateral
approximant
t d
µ
n
r
|
F B f v T D s Êz S Z
ñ L
Ã
¨
l
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Pharyngeal
Glottal
æ ¶ c ï k g q G
/
=
N
Ð
R
Ç
§ ½ • J x V X å © ? h H
Õ
ð
j
´
÷
K
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
Clicks
>
ù
!
ø
²
VOWELS
Bilabial
Dental
(Post)alveolar
Palatoalveolar
Alveolar lateral
º
ë
ú
Ä
ì
Bilabial
Dental/alveolar
Palatal
Velar
Uvular
Front
Ejectives
Voiced implosives
’
p’
t’
k’
s’
Close
Examples:
i
Central
y
Bilabial
Close-mid
Dental/alveolar
Velar
Open-mid
Alveolar fricative
OTHER SYMBOLS
DIACRITICS
9
3
î
7
¦
ª
2
Ê á
+
`
8
±
Ê
Open
n9 d9
Voiced
s3 tÊ3
Aspirated
tî dî
More rounded O7
Less rounded
O¦
Advanced
uª
Retracted
e2
Centralized
eá
Mid-centralized e+
Syllabic
n`
Non-syllabic
e8
Rhoticity
«± a±
»
e ¸
«
E { ä
Œ
Ï
a Ó
£
W
Æ
×
³
•
6
¤
5
°
¯ o
¿ O
A •
SUPRASEGMENTALS
"
(
kp ts
É
ò
N(
b» a» 1 Dental
tÊ1 d1
Creaky voiced
b0 a0 Á Apical
tÊÁ dÁ
Linguolabial
tÊ£ Êd£ 4 Laminal
tÊ4 d4
Labialized
tW dW ) Nasalized
e)
Palatalized
tÆ dÆ ö Nasal release
dö
Velarized
t× Êd× Â Lateral release dÂ
Pharyngealized t³ Ê d³
} No audible release d}
Velarized or pharyngealized :
Raised
e6 Ê( ¨6 = voiced alveolar fricative)
Lowered
e¤ ( B¤ = voiced bilabial approximant)
Advanced Tongue Root
e5
Retracted Tongue Root
e°
Primary stress
Secondary stress
®
Breathy voiced
0
U
¬ u
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one
to the right represents a rounded vowel.
Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g.
Voiceless
é è
IY
e P
(
· Voiceless labial-velar fricative ‚ ó Alveolo-palatal fricatives
w Ê Voiced labial-velar approximant
È Voiced alveolar lateral flap
ç Voiced labial-palatal approximant ê Simultaneous S and x
í Voiceless epiglottal fricative
Affricates and double articulations
ÊÀ ÊVoiced epiglottal fricative
can be represented by two symbols
joined by a tie bar if necessary.
ÊÖ Ê Epiglottal plosive
Back
˜
CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC)
®foUn«"tIS«n
Long
*
ù
²
.
Å
eÊ_
e!
[email protected]
e~
eÑ
Í
›
Half-long
Extra-short
eÉ
eò
e*
Minor (foot) group
Major (intonation) group
Syllable break
¨i.Ïkt
Linking (absence of a break)
TONES AND WORD ACCENTS
CONTOUR
LEVEL
Extra
Rising
or
or
high
‰
•
”
™
ž
High
Mid
Low
Extra
low
Downstep
Upstep
e Š
e$ ‘ Falling
e% Ÿ High
rising
eÞ • Low
rising
e& –$ Risingfalling
Global
rise
‹
Ì Global fall